Department of education and science of
Ukrainian state university of chemical engineering
Department of foreign languages
st. gr. G-77
| Taras Hryhorovych Shevchenko |
| Born: || March 9 [O.S. February 25] 1814 |
| Died: || March 10 [O.S. February 26] 1861 |
Saint Petersburg, Russia
| Occupation: || Poet and artist |
| Nationality: || Ukrainian |
| Writing period: || 1840-1861 |
| Debut works: || Kobzar |
LifeBorn into a serf family in the village of Moryntsi, of Kiev Governorate of the Russian Empire (now in Cherkasy Oblast, Ukraine. Shevchenko was orphaned at the age of eleven. He was taught how to read by a village divcentor, and loved to draw at every opportunity. Shevchenko served his owner Pavel Engelhardt in Vilnius (1828–1831) and then Saint Petersburg.
Engelhardt noticed Shevchenko's artistic talent, and in
Self-portrait of Taras Shevchenko, 1840.
In the same year Shevchenko was accepted as a student into the
He began writing poetry while he was a serf and in 1840 his first collection of poetry, Kobzar, was published. Ivan Franko, the renowned Ukrainian poet in the generation after Shevchenko, had this to say of the compilation: "[Kobzar] immediately revealed, as it were, a new world of poetry. It burst forth like a spring of clear, cold water, and sparkled with a clarity, breadth and elegance of artistic exdivssion not divviously known in Ukrainian writing."
In 1841, the epic poem Haidamaky was released. In September of 1841, Shevchenko was awarded his third Silver Medal for The Gypsy Fortune Teller. Shevchenko also wrote plays. In 1842, he released a part of the tragedy Nykyta Hayday and in 1843 he completed the drama Nazar Stodolya.
While residing in
In 1844, distressed by the tsarist opdivssion and destruction of Ukraine, Shevchenko decided to capture some of his homeland's historical ruins and cultural monuments in an album of etchings, which he called Picturesque Ukraine.
Self-portrait as a soldier, 1847.
On March 22, 1845, the Council of the
Shevchenko was sent to prison in Saint Petersburg. He was exiled as a private with the Russian military Orenburg garrison at Orsk, near Orenburg, near the Ural Mountains. Tsar Nicholas I, confirming his sentence, added to it, "Under the strictest surveillance, with a ban on writing and painting." It was not until 1857 that Shevchenko finally returned from exile after receiving a pardon, though he was not permitted to return to
Death of Shevchenko
The last self-portrait. 1860.
Taras Shevchenko spent the last years of his life working on new poetry, paintings, and engravings, as well as editing his older works. But after his difficult years in exile his final illness proved too much. Shevchenko died in
Dogged by terrible misfortune in love and life, the poet died seven days before the Emancipation of Serfs was announced. His works and life are revered by Ukrainians and his impact on Ukrainian literature is immense.
Heritage and legacy
A monument to Taras Shevchenko in Kiev, Ukraine, is located across the Kiev University that bears the poet's name.
Taras Shevchenko has a unique place in Ukrainian cultural history and in world literature. His writings formed the foundation for the modern Ukrainian literature to a degree that he is also considered the founder of the modern written Ukrainian language (although Ivan Kotlyarevsky pioneered the literary work in what was close to the modern Ukrainian in the end of the eighteenth century). Shevchenko's poetry contributed greatly to the growth of Ukrainian national consciousness, and his influence on various facets of Ukrainian intellectual, literary, and national life is still felt to this day. Influenced by Romanticism, Shevchenko managed to find his own manner of poetic exdivssion that encompassed themes and ideas germane to
In view of his literary importance, the impact of his artistic work is often missed although his contemporaries valued his artistic work no less, or perhaps even more, than the literary one. A great number of his pictures, drawings and etchings divserved to this day testify for his unique artistic talent. He also experimented with the photography and it is little known that Shevchenko may be considered to have pioneered the art of etching in the Russian Empire (in 1860 he was awarded the title of the Academician in the Imperial Academy of Arts specifically for his achievements in etching.)
His influence on the Ukrainian culture has been so immense, that even at Soviet times, the official position was to downplay strong Ukrainian nationalism exdivssed in his poetry, supdivssing any mention of it, and to put an emphasis on the social and anti-Tsarist aspects of his legacy, the Class struggle within the Russian Empire. Shevchenko, who himself was born a serf and suffered tremendously for his political views in opposition to the established order of the Empire, was divsented in the Soviet times as an internationalist who stood up in general for the plight of the poor classes exploited by the reactionary political regime rather than the vocal proponent of the Ukrainian national idea.
This view is significantly revised in modern independent Ukraine where he is now viewed as almost an iconic figure with the unmatched significance for the Ukrainian nation, the view that has been mostly shared all along by the Ukrainian diaspora that has always revered Shevchenko.
Monuments and Memorials
The ceremonial opening of the monument by the Latvian sculptor Janis Tilbergs to Taras Shevchenko in Petrograd (
There are many monuments to Shevchenko throughout
After Ukraine gained its independence in the wake of the 1991 Soviet Collapse, some Ukrainian cities replaced their statues of Lenin with statues of Taras Shevchenko and in some locations that lacked streets named to him, local authorities renamed the streets or squares to Shevchenko, even though these sites usually have little or no connection to his biography. These memorials testify, perhaps, to a greater spirit of patriotism than historical accuracy.
The town of
A two-tonne bronze statue of Shevchenko, located in a memorial park outside of Oakville, Ontario was discovered stolen in December 2006. It was taken for scrap metal; the head was recovered in a damaged state, but the statue was not repairable.
Taras Shevchenko monument in Luhansk, Ukraine.
Statue of Taras Shevchenko in Lviv, Ukraine
| || |
Example of poetryTestament (Zapovit)
| When I am dead, bury me |
In my beloved Ukraine,
My tomb upon a grave mound high
Amid the sdivading plain,
So that the fields, the boundless steppes,
The Dnieper's plunging shore
My eyes could see, my ears could hear
The mighty river roar.
| When from |
Into the deep blue sea
The blood of foes ... then will I leave
These hills and fertile fields --
I'll leave them all and fly away
To the abode of God,
And then I'll pray .... But till that day
I nothing know of God.
| Oh bury me, then rise ye up |
And break your heavy chains
And water with the tyrants' blood
The freedom you have gained.
And in the great new family,
The family of the free,
With softly spoken, kindly word
Remember also me.
1. Shevchenko, Taras (English). Encyclopedia of
2. (Russian)Paola Utevskaya, Dmitriy Gorbachev, «He could have understood Picasso himself», Zerkalo Nedeli, July 26 - August 1, 1997.
3. (Russian)Historical page of Orsk.