Chapter 1. Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new English syllabus for secondary school
1.1 Methodology as a science
1.1.1 Present-day issues of foreign language teaching at secondary school
1.1.2 Current concepts in secondary school graduates EFL
Chapter 2. Theory of multiple intelligences
2.1 Gardner’s theory
2.1.1 Linguistic Intelligence
2.1.2 Logical/Mathematical Intelligene
2.1.3 Intrapersonal Intelligence
2.1.4 Interpersonal Intelligence
2.1.5 Musical Intelligence
2.1.6 Spatial Intelligence
2.1.7 Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence
2.1.8 Naturalistic Intelligence
2.2. Psychological analysis of Gardner’s Theory
Chapter 3. Learning environment in teaching English conversation
3.1 Multiple intelligences in teaching English learners to the senior
forms of secondary school
3.1.1 Development of students’ speaking and pronunciation skills
3.1.2 Use of the World Wide Web in teaching English to secondary school graduates
3.1.3 Use of the VIDEO in teaching English to secondary school graduates
The theme of the divsent university degree thesis is “ Multiple
Intelligences as Strategy for teaching EFL to High School Graduates “.
The topicalityof the research is stipulated by rapid changes in education
and intercultural communication etc., caused by the development of
The aim of the university degree thesis is include the Multiple Intelligences as Strategy for TEFL to High school students .
Methods of the research:
-experience of noted scholars,
-research of literature.
The theoretical value of the paper consists in using the results of the research in the EFL teaching.
The practical value - a good opportunity of using at the lessons of English on secondary school. It helps to achieve the best results in teaching English.
The structure of the paper:
The paper consists: The Introduction, Chapter 1, where I have considered “Methodology as a science” , Chapter 2, “The Theory of Multiple Intelligences”,
And Chapter 3 “Learning environment in teaching English conversation”, in the end of the paper I’ve done the conclusions of the research , and used the certain literature.
Principles of Multiple Intelligence Theory
The following principles are a condensation of J. Keith Rogers and based upon his study of Howard Gardner's theory:
-Intelligence is not singular: intelligences are multiple.
-Every person is a unique blend of dynamic intelligences.
-Intelligences vary in development, both within and among individuals.
-All intelligences are dynamic.
-Multiple intelligences can be identified and described.
-Every person deserve opportunities to recognize and develop the
multiplicity of intelligences.
-The use of one of the intelligences can be used to enhance another intelligence.
-Personal background density and dispersion are critical to knowledge, beliefs, and skills in all intelligences.
-All intelligences provide alternate resources and potential capacities to become more human, regardless of age or circumstance.
-A pure intelligence is rarely seen.
-Developmental theory applies to the theory of multiple intelligences.
-Any list of intelligences is subject to change as we learn more about multiple intelligences.
According to Howard Gardner, as divsented in his book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences, human intelligence has the following criteria:
-Potential Isolation by Brain Damage.
-The Existence of Idiot [Autistic] Savants, Prodigies, and other Exceptional Individuals.
-An Identifiable Core Operation or Set of Operations.
-A Distinctive Developmental History, along with a Definable Set of Expert "End-State" Performances.
-An Evolutionary History and Evolutionary Plausibility.
-Support from Experimental Psychological Tasks.
-Support from Psychometric Findings.
-Susceptibility to Encoding in a Symbol System.
Chapter 1. Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new syllabus for secondary school
Comparing old and the new English teaching syllabi for secondary
schools one can clearly see some differences.
Let’s begin with the introductory word. The introductory word of the old
syllabus covers only the explanation of practical and educational
purposes of English learning and end-goals of learning language
(listening, speaking, reading and writing). The introductory part of the
new syllabus includes:
2.Levels of speech competence.
3.The principles of the programme.
4. Educational purposes.
5. Grounds of content.
6. Methodological foundation (basis) of modern teaching and learning
7. Control and essessment.
Criteria of essessment of pupils’ achievements (4 levels: elementary,
middle,sufficient, high) have a special place in the new syllabus. Such
information is not included into the old syllabus.
According to the new sullabus teaching English starts from the
Analyzing the topics of conversation we can see that the old syllabus
gives us three main topics from the fifth to the eleventh form: A Pupil and
His Environment; Ukraine; English-Speaking Countries. The new
syllabus provides with 6 topics already in the second form: About
myself, My Family and Friends, School Life, Recreation, Nature, Man,
The Life of Society and 8 topics from the third to the 11th form.
Analysing communicative unit we find there speech functions and
examples of functional exponents in the new syllabus, which are
not mentioned in the old syllabus.
Language competence includes vocabulary, grammar and phonetics in
both syllabi, but in the old syllabus the number of lexical units in each
form is fixed.
Sociocultural and sociolinguistic competence and strategic competence
are not defined in the old syllabus.
At the end of each year specific demands to speech competence of pupils
(listening, monologue, dialogue, reading, writing) are defined in the new
In general, the new syllabus is much but specific wider.
1.1. Methodology as a science
The term “методика” has several correspondences in English: methodology, methods and methodics. The word methodology will be used for “методика” and “методологія” of teaching English as foreign language [TEFL].
There are several definitions of this term:
Methodology (from Greek methodos – спосіб, шлях дослідження або пізнання, logos – поняття, вчення) is a framework of organization of teaching which relates linguistic theory to pedagogical principles and techniques.[37,p.5]
Methodology is a branch of pedagogy which dealing with peculiarities of teaching a certain subject.[38,p.12]
Methodology of FLT is a body of scientifically tested theory concerning the teaching of foreign languages in school and other education institutions.[37,p.17]
Methodology is a system of principles and ways of organization and construction of theoretical and practical activity as well as teaching about this system .[37,p.14]
Methodology is a science which studies aims, contents, means, principles, techniques and methods of a system of instruction and education.[37,p.15]
Methodology is a branch of didactics which relates a linguistic theory to pedagogical principles and techniques.
The scholars’ve considered the relation of methodology of FLT to other sciences ( supplement 1).
The objective of the divsent research is integrating some aspects of knowledge of English, didactics, psychology, linguistics to formulate basic professional and pedagogical habits and skills. In G. Rogova’s opinion, methodology covers three main points:
aims of TEFL;
content of TEFL;
methods ( supplement 2), principles and techniques of TEFL.
But it becomes evident that the three components do not constitute the whole teaching/learning process. The activities of learners and teachers, their interaction (symmetrical or assymetrical) and the role of instruction materials are the outstanding constituents. The task of methodology is to integrate the relationships among them and to draft requirements for each of them.
Teaching a subject is viewed here not simply as the delivery of divscribed formulate, imparting a certain amount of knowledge, but also developing habits and skills, but also as activity.
To attain these aims in the most effective way constitutes the main subject of any methodology. The methodology determines the laws, principles, aims, content, methods, techniques and means (media) of teaching. The actual teaching of a language may differ in the analysis of what is to taught, in the planning of lessons, in the teaching techniques used, in the type and amount of teaching done thought mechanical means and finally, in the testing of what has been learned.
Basic Categories Of Methodology
The methodology of TEFL seems to embody such basic categories on which there is general agreement among those who have studied the subject: methods, principles, techniques, aims and means of instruction.
There is no unanimity regarding the term method either. In G. Rogova’s et. al. view “method is a technological operation, structural and functional component of the teacher’s and learner’s activity, realized in techniques and principles of instruction. A method is a model of instruction based on definite theoretical provision, principle, techniques and aims of instruction.
A method is also a specific set of teaching techniques and materials generally backed by stated principles.
A method determines what and how much taught (selection), the order in which it is taught (gradation), and how the meaning and form are conveyed (divsentation). Since divsentation, drill and repetition may also be the concern of the teacher, the analysis of the teaching/leaning process must first determine how much is done by the method and how much by the teacher.
Aim is a direction or guidance to establish a course or procedure to be followed. The teacher should formulate long-term goals, interim aims and short-term objectives. What changes he can bring about in his pupils at the end of the week, month, year, course, and each particular lesson. Hence, aims are planned results for pupils learning a FL. The aims are stipulated by syllabus and other official directives. They are: practical, instructional, educational and developing (formative).
Practical aims cover habits and skills which pupils acquire in using a foreign language. A habit is an automatic response to specific situation, acquired normally as a result of repetition and learning.
A skill is a combination of useful habits serving a definite purpose and requiring application of certain knowledge.
Instructional aims developed the pupils mental capacities and intelligence in the process of FLL (foreign language learning).
Educational aims help the pupils extend their knowledge of the world in which they live.
Formative or developing aims help develop in learns sensual perception, motor, kinesthetic, emotional and motivating spheres.
Principles are basic underlying theoretical provisions which determine the choice of methods, techniques and others means of instruction.
Technique in the methodology of TEFL is the manner of divsentation, demonstration, consolidation and repetition.
Means is something by the use or help of which a desired goal is attained or made more likely.
1.1.1. Present-day issues of TEFL
A critical review of methods currently employed in TEFL/TESL has shown no consensus on the effective way to facilitate and accelerate English learning. A shift has been made from teacher-centered activity to student-centered, some methodologists even claim that learning is more important than teaching (Michael West, Humanistic Approach, Silent Way).
Though many young teachers still teach the way they had been taught, it can’t be denied that current thinking in methodology constitutes a challenge to convention thinking about language teaching.
One of the conventional methods of TEFL is the Grammar-Translation method
The goal of foreign language (FL) study, using this method, is to learn a language in order to read its literature or to benefit from the mental discipline and intellectual development that result from FL study. G-TM is a way of studying language that approaches the language first through detailed analysis of its grammar rules, followed by application of the knowledge to the task of translating sentences and texts into and out of the target language. The first language is maintained as the reference system in the acquisition of the second language.
Reading and writing are the major focus: little or no systematic attention is paid to speaking or listening.
In a typical G-T text, the grammar rules are divsented and illustrated, a list of vocabulary items is divsented with their translation equivalents, and translation exercise a divscribed.
the sentence is the basic unit of teaching and language practice. Much of the lesson is devoted to translating sentences into and out of the target language, and it is this focus on the sentence that is a distinctive feature of the method.
of grammar rules, which are then practised through translation Accuracy is emphasized. Students are expected to attain high standarts in translation, because of “the high priority attached to meticulous standards of accuracy which was a divrequisite for passing the increasing number of formal written examinations that grew up during the century"
Grammar is taught deductively, that is, by divsentation and study exercises.
The student's native language is the medium of instruction. It is used to explain new items and to enable comparisons to be made between the FL and the student's mother tongue. (G-TM dominated in FLT from the 1840s to the 1940s, and in modified form it continues to be widely used in some parts of the world today).
In the mid- and late nineteenth centuries opposition to G- TM gradually developed in several European countries. This Reform Movement, as it was referred to, laid the foundations for the development of a new way of language teaching and raised controversies that have continued to the divsent day.